Copernicus to the Big Bang -
Tycho Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo

Quoting from my dad's old college General Physics book written
in the early 1900s, "What we may properly call the birth of
modern physics, however, dates from Galileo (1564-1642), one
of the most remarkable men who ever lived. More than any one
of his predecessors or contemporaries he introduced
'controlled experiment' as a means of gaining knowledge of

Similarly Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) discovered his laws of
planetary motion and is widely acknowledged as the "Father of
Modern Physics" for his use of observational data (mostly
Brahe's) and the application of mathematical modeling to
astronomical data.

Tycho Brahe's contributions to astronomy were enormous. He
not only designed and built instruments, he also calibrated
them and checked their accuracy periodically. He thus
revolutionized astronomical instrumentation. He also changed
observational practice profoundly.
                     Copernicus (1473-1543)
      Tycho Brahe   Johannas Kepler       Galileo Galilei
      (1546-1601)    (1571-1630)           (1564-1642)


On the Shoulders of Giants
Edited with Comentary, by Stephen Hawking
Running Press, September 2002
ISBN-13: 9780762413485
ISBN-10: 0762413484

  World-renowned physicist and bestselling author Stephen
  Hawking presents a revolutionary look at the momentous
  discoveries that changed our perception of the world with
  this first-ever compilation of seven classic works on
  physics and astronomy. His choice of landmark writings by
  some of the world's great thinkers traces the brilliant
  evolution of modern science and shows how each figure built
  upon the genius of his predecessors. On the Shoulders of
  Giants includes, in their entirety, On the Revolution of
  Heavenly Spheres by Nicolaus Copernicus; Principia by Sir
  Isaac Newton; The Principle of Relativity by Albert
  Einstein; Dialogues Concerning Two Sciences by Galileo
  Galilei with Alfonso De Salvio; plus Mystery of the Cosmos,
  Harmony of the World, and Rudolphine Tables by Johannes
  Kepler. It also includes five critical essays and a
  biography of each featured physicist, written by Hawking