Tests of Big Bang Cosmology
http://edu-observatory.org/olli/tobbc/Week4.html   or   index.html


Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a8FTr2qMutA  (4+ min)

  Heisenberg's uncertainty principle tells us that it is
  impossible to simultaneously measure the position and
  momentum of a particle with arbitrary precision. In our
  everyday lives we virtually never come up against this
  limit, hence why it seems peculiar. In this experiment a
  laser is shone through a narrow slit onto a screen. As the
  slit is made narrower, the spot on the screen also becomes
  narrower. But at a certain point, the spot starts becoming
  wider. This is because the photons of light have been so
  localized at the slit that their horizontal momentum must
  become less well defined in order to satisfy Heisenberg's
  uncertainty principle.

Quantum vacuum fluctuation (or Quantum Fluctuation for short)

Quoting from the above Wikipedia page:

  "In quantum physics, a quantum vacuum fluctuation (or
  quantum fluctuation or vacuum fluctuation) is the temporary
  change in the amount of energy in a point in space, arising
  from Werner Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

  "According to one formulation of the principle, energy and
  time can be related by the relation


  "That means that conservation of energy can appear to be
  violated, but only for small times. This allows the creation
  of particle-antiparticle pairs of virtual particles. The
  effects of these particles are measurable, for example, in
  the effective charge of the electron, different from its
  "naked" charge.

  "In the modern view, energy is always conserved, but the
  eigenstates of the Hamiltonian (energy observable) are not
  the same as (i.e., the Hamiltonian doesn't commute with) the
  particle number operators.

  "Quantum fluctuations may have been very important in the
  origin of the structure of the universe: according to the
  model of inflation the ones that existed when inflation
  began were amplified and formed the seed of all current
  observed structure."

Quoting from A USENET Posting by Steve Carlip (UC Davis):

  "CMB fluctuations give evidence for (though not proof of)

  "So far, I haven't said anything about where the initial
  density variations of the pre-recombination plasma came
  from. There are many possibilities. We know, at least, that
  they must be there -- even if we try to start with a
  perfectly smooth, unvarying plasma, the Heisenberg
  uncertainty principle tells us that there must be a minimum
  level of quantum fluctuations.


  "Inflationary" models propose that the very early Universe
  -- before the time of primordial nucleosynthesis --
  underwent a very rapid expansion. Such an expansion would
  smooth out/dilute any earlier inhomogeneities, leaving only
  the quantum fluctuations, which would be "stretched" in size
  by the rapidly expanding space.

  "Such models predict a special pattern of fluctuations. In
  particular, although any particular fluctuation is random,
  the average number at any particular scale is predictable. 
  This pattern on initial variations, in turn, should show up
  in the details of the CMB variations. So far, observations
  match the predictions of inflation very well. Most people in
  the field don't consider this conclusive -- one can imagine
  other ways of getting a similar pattern of initial
  perturbations -- but it is suggestive."

Why Is The Universe So Empty?
  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CmqbMwRK8KA   (4+ min)

Empty Space is not Empty (as one would expect from Uncertainty)
  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4D6qY2c0Z8  (3+ min)
Lawrence Krauss: A Universe From Nothing 
  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-EilZ4VY5Vs  (1:05 hr)

Physics Nobel Prize 2011 - Brian Schmidt
  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHBvOOX3RJQ  (7+ min)

  The Nobel Prize for physics in 2011 was awarded to Brian
  Schmidt, Adam Riess, and Saul Perlmutter for discovering
  that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. This
  finding was completely unexpected because it was thought
  that gravity should slow the expansion of the cosmos. The
  best current explanation of why the universe is accelerating
  is that there is some energy tied to empty space which
  pushes matter apart. This 'Dark Energy' makes up 73% of the
  universe but is very difficult to detect.

Inflation (cosmology)

  "In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological
  inflation, or just inflation is the extremely rapid
  exponential expansion of the early universe by a factor of
  at least 10^78 in volume, driven by a negative-pressure
  vacuum energy density.[1] The inflationary epoch comprises
  the first part of the electroweak epoch following the grand
  unification epoch. It lasted from 10^-36 seconds after the
  Big Bang to sometime between 10^-33 and 10^-32 seconds.
  Following the inflationary period, the universe continued to
  expand, but at a slower rate.

  "The term "inflation" is also used to refer to the
  hypothesis that inflation occurred, to the theory of
  inflation, or to the inflationary epoch. The inflationary
  hypothesis was originally proposed in 1980 by American
  physicist Alan Guth, who named it "inflation".[2] It was
  also proposed by Katsuhiko Sato in 1981.[3]

  "As a direct consequence of this expansion, all of the
  observable universe originated in a small causally connected
  region. Inflation answers the classic conundrum of the Big
  Bang cosmology: why does the universe appear flat,
  homogeneous, and isotropic in accordance with the
  cosmological principle when one would expect, on the basis
  of the physics of the Big Bang, a highly curved,
  heterogeneous universe? Inflation also explains the origin
  of the large-scale structure of the cosmos. Quantum
  fluctuations in the microscopic inflationary region,
  magnified to cosmic size, become the seeds for the growth of
  structure in the universe (see galaxy formation and
  evolution and structure formation)."

Cosmic Inflation and the Accelerating Universe - Part 1 - Alan Guth
  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HwCCMHH378Q  (9+ min)

  Alan H. Guth describes the theory of inflation and presents
  evidence that indicates our universe very likely underwent a
  perod of inflation in its early existence. He also discusses
  the surprising observation that the expansion of the
  universe is accelerating, offers possible explanations for
  this acceleration, and describes its impact on particle

WMAP: Foundations of the Big Bang theory
WMAP: Tests of Big Bang Cosmology

No Center
  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W4c-gX9MT1Q  (1:26 min)