Tests of Big Bang Cosmology
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Tests of Big Bang Cosmology

  The Big Bang Model is supported by a number of important
  observations, each of which are described in more detail
  on separate pages:

  1. The expansion of the universe

  Edwin Hubble's 1929 observation that galaxies were generally
  receding from us provided the first clue that the Big Bang
  theory might be right.

  2. The abundance of the light elements H, He, Li

  The Big Bang theory predicts that these light elements
  should have been fused from protons and neutrons in the
  first few minutes after the Big Bang.

  In 1948, Physicist George Gamow hypothesized that all of the
  elements might have been made in the hot and dense early
  universe. He suggested to his student, Ralph Alpher, that he
  calculate this. Alpher did so for his PhD thesis, with
  Robert Herman participating in much of the work. Alpher and
  Herman found that Gamow was wrong: most elements could not
  have been made in the early universe.

  The problem is with neutron capture. Neutrons decay in about
  10 minutes, and their density decreases as the universe
  expands in that time. There just isn't enough time to keep
  building up to the heavier elements before the neutrons are
  gone. The heavy elements are made later, in stars. Only the
  lightest elements are built up in the early universe. The
  important prediction that the cosmic microwave background
  (CMB) exists, and has a blackbody spectrum with a
  temperature of about 5 degrees above absolute zero, was a
  by-product of this work.

  3. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation

  The early universe should have been very hot. The cosmic
  microwave background radiation is the remnant heat leftover
  from the Big Bang.

  These three measurable signatures strongly support the
  notion that the universe evolved from a dense, nearly
  featureless hot gas, just as the Big Bang model predicts.

Comparison of Solar Nucleosynthesis and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Solar Nucleosynthesis -- proton-proton chain Weak Interaction Relevant papers by John N. Bahcall, Sarbani Basu, M. H. Pinsonneault: http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/astro-ph/9805135 http://pdg.lbl.gov/1998/solarnu_s005313.pdf http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/24/3/24-3-bahcall.pdf Big Bang Nucleosynthesis http://star-www.st-and.ac.uk/~kdh1/ce/ce03.pdf

Fundamental Particle and Interactions http://www.cpepphysics.org/images/chart_2006_4.jpg Interactive Periodic Table - With Spectral Lines http://www.ptable.com Periodic Table - Sources The Evidence For The Big Bang In 10 Little Minutes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uyCkADmNdNo

Book Recommendation The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe by Steven Weinberg https://www.amazon.com/First-Three-Minutes-Modern-Universe/dp/0465024378 "The book is the first I have seen to put the details, both historical and conceptual, of the origin of the Universe within the grasp of the general reader... As such, it is a tremendous service to us all." ~Isaac Asimov "His book is science writing at its best." ~Martin Gardner, New York Review of Books "Weinberg builds such a convincing case...that one comes away from his book feeling not only that the idea of an original cosmic explosion is not crazy but that any other theory appears scientifically irrational." ~Jeremy Bernstein, New Yorker "A most remarkable achievement...presented with clarity...and great scientific accuracy." ~T.D. Lee, Nobel Laureate in Physics sam.wormley@gmail.com