Tests of Big Bang Cosmology
http://edu-observatory.org/olli/tobbc/Week1.html   or   index.html

Science, Religion, and the Big Bang (Minute Physics)

No Center (Everywhere Is The Center)

Misconceptions About the Universe

94% of the universe's galaxies are permanently beyond our reach

Tests of Big Bang Cosmology http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_tests.html The Big Bang Model is supported by a number of important observations, each of which are described in more detail on separate pages: 1. The expansion of the universe http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_tests_exp.html Edwin Hubble's 1929 observation that galaxies were generally receding from us provided the first clue that the Big Bang theory might be right. The Big Bang model was a natural outcome of Einstein's General Relativity as applied to a homogeneous universe. However, in 1917, the idea that the universe was expanding was thought to be absurd. So Einstein invented the cosmological constant as a term in his General Relativity theory that allowed for a static universe. In 1929, Edwin Hubble announced that his observations of galaxies outside our own Milky Way showed that they were systematically moving away from us with a speed that was proportional to their distance from us. The more distant the galaxy, the faster it was receding from us. The universe was expanding after all, just as General Relativity originally predicted! Hubble observed that the light from a given galaxy was shifted further toward the red end of the light spectrum the further that galaxy was from our galaxy. The specific form of Hubble's expansion law is important: the speed of recession is proportional to distance. Hubble expressed this idea in an equation - distance/time per megaparsec. A megaparsec is a really big distance (3.26 million light-years). The expanding raisin bread model illustrates why this proportion law is important. If every portion of the bread expands by the same amount in a given interval of time, then the raisins would recede from each other with exactly a Hubble type expansion law. In a given time interval, a nearby raisin would move relatively little, but a distant raisin would move relatively farther - and the same behavior would be seen from any raisin in the loaf. In other words, the Hubble law is just what one would expect for a homogeneous expanding universe, as predicted by the Big Bang theory. Moreover no raisin, or galaxy, occupies a special place in this universe - unless you get too close to the edge of the loaf where the analogy breaks down. 2. The abundance of the light elements H, He, Li http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_tests_ele.html The Big Bang theory predicts that these light elements should have been fused from protons and neutrons in the first few minutes after the Big Bang. 3. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_tests_cmb.html The early universe should have been very hot. The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat leftover from the Big Bang. These three measurable signatures strongly support the notion that the universe evolved from a dense, nearly featureless hot gas, just as the Big Bang model predicts.

From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap060323.html Energy Level Within Atomic Structure Spectroscopy 101 - Types of Spectra and Spectroscopy https://webbtelescope.org/contents/articles/spectroscopy-101--types-of-spectra-and-spectroscopy From Wikipedia - Spectral Lines http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectral_line From Wikipedia - Spectral Lines (Continuous) From Wikipedia - Spectral Lines (Emission) From Wikipedia - Emission Spectra http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emission_spectrum From Wikipedia - Spectral Lines (Absorption) From Wikipedia - Absorption spectroscopy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absorption_spectrum From Wikipedia - Doppler Effect http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doppler_effect From Wikipedia - Redshift sam.wormley@gmail.com