Water, water, everywhere (from Air)


The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (text of 1834)
By Samuel Taylor Coleridge

  All in a hot and copper sky, 
  The bloody Sun, at noon, 
  Right up above the mast did stand, 
  No bigger than the Moon. 

  Day after day, day after day, 
  We stuck, nor breath nor motion; 
  As idle as a painted ship 
  Upon a painted ocean. 

  Water, water, every where, 
  And all the boards did shrink; 
  Water, water, every where, 
  Nor any drop to drink. 

FEYNMAN LECTURES ON PHYSICS https://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu Feynman Lecture No. 1 - Atoms in Motion https://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu/I_01.html Attractive intermolecular forces are categorized into the following types: o Hydrogen bonding o Ion-dipole forces and ion-induced dipole forces o Van der Waals forces - Keesom force, Debye force, and London dispersion force

THE CHANGING CLIMATE AND FRESH WATER Climate change is altering weather and water patterns across the world, leading to shortages and droughts in some areas, while others experience floods. In the sub-tropics where certain regions are already dry, climate change will likely cause droughts to be more frequent, which in turn leads to less water thus impacting livelihoods through agriculture, energy generation and more. At the other end of the spectrum, global warming could also increase flooding in other areas - a warmer atmosphere has the ability to hold more moisture, causing heavier rainfall when the air eventually cools and posing a huge risk to people around the world. Freshwater supply and scarcity Of all of the water on Earth, 97% is saltwater, leaving a mere 3% as freshwater, approximately 1% of which is readily available for our use. The world's population is becoming more and more reliant on this precious resource for power, agriculture, industrial practices, and daily consumption. Scarcity of fresh water is likely to worsen as climate change leads to more droughts and floods.

WATER HARVESTING FROM AIR: CURRENT PASSIVE APPROACHES AND OUTLOOK (APRIL 21, 2022) https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsmaterialslett.1c00850 ABSTRACT In the context of global water scarcity, water vapor available in air is a non-negligible supplementary fresh water resource. Current and potential energetically passive procedures for improving atmospheric water harvesting (AWH) capabilities involve different strategies and dedicated materials, which are reviewed in this paper, from the perspective of morphology and wettability optimization, substrate cooling, and sorbent assistance. The advantages and limitations of different AWH strategies are respectively discussed, as well as their water harvesting performance. The various applications based on advanced AWH technologies are also demonstrated. A prospective concept of multifunctional water vapor harvesting panel based on promising cooling material, inspired by silicon-based solar energy panels, is finally proposed with a brief outlook of its advantages and challenges.

REVERSIBLE ATMOSPHERIC WATER HARVESTING USING METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS (8+ L/kg-MOF/day) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-58405-9 ABSTRACT The passive capture of clean water from humid air without reliance on bulky equipment and high energy has been a substantial challenge and has attracted significant interest as a potential environmentally friendly alternative to traditional water harvesting methods. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) offer a high potential for this application due to their structural versatility which permits scalable, facile modulations of structural and functional elements. Although MOFs are promising materials for water harvesting, little research has been done to address the microstructure-adsorbing characteristics relationship with respect to the dynamic adsorption-desorption process. In this article, we present a parametric study of nine hydrolytically stable MOFs with diverse structures for unraveling fundamental material properties that govern the kinetics of water sequestration in this class of materials as well as investigating overall uptake capacity gravimetrically. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, and powder bed thickness on the adsorption-desorption process are explored for achieving optimal operational parameters. We found that Zr-MOF-808 can produce up to 8.66 L/kg-MOF/day, an extraordinary finding that outperforms any previously reported values for MOF-based systems. The presented findings help to deepen our understanding and guide the discovery of next-generation water harvesting materials.

HARVESTING DRINKING WATER FROM HUMIDITY AROUND THE CLOCK (50 mL/m^2/hr) https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abf3978 ABSTRACT Atmospheric water vapor is ubiquitous and represents a promising alternative to address global clean water scarcity. Sustainably harvesting this resource requires energy neutrality, continuous production, and facility of use. However, fully passive and uninterrupted 24-hour atmospheric water harvesting remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a rationally designed system that synergistically combines radiative shielding and cooling-dissipating the latent heat of condensation radiatively to outer space-with a fully passive superhydrophobic condensate harvester, working with a coalescence-induced water removal mechanism. A rationally designed shield, accounting for the atmospheric radiative heat, facilitates daytime atmospheric water harvesting under solar irradiation at realistic levels of relative humidity. The remarkable cooling power enhancement enables dew mass fluxes up to 50 mL/m^2/hr, close to the ultimate capabilities of such systems. Our results demonstrate that the yield of related technologies can be at least doubled, while cooling and collection remain passive, thereby substantially advancing the state of the art.

WARKA WATER TOWERS HARVEST DRINKABLE WATER FROM THE AIR (2+ min) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THJVuinPbc0 The tower consists of a bamboo frame supporting a mesh polyester material inside. Rain, fog and dew condenses against the mesh and trickles down a funnel into a reservoir at the base of the structure. A fabric canopy shades the lower sections of the tower to prevent the collected water from evaporating. "Warka Water is currently represented by a tower that reaches up to the sky to collect moisture from the air and brings it down by gravity to the people," Vittori says. The performance of the towers varies depending on the weather, but Vittori's aim is to create a structure that would enable the community to extract up to 100 litres of water a day without the reservoir running dry.

CREATING WATER IN THE ATACAMA DESERT - CREATING WATER FOUNDATION - DOCUMENTARY (9+ min) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsNNp9N2v9Y Capturing water from the fog and producing food on the driest place on earth, the Atacama Desert, Peru. This water has two purposes: clean drinking water and to grow food. Water from the fog - Clean drinking water - organic agriculture - Biochar - clean energy.

HYDROPHILIC NANOFIBERS IN FOG COLLECTORS FOR INCREASED WATER HARVESTING EFFICIENCY (64 mL/cm^2/hr) https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2020/ra/d0ra03939j#! ABSTRACT The water crisis is a big social problem and one of the solutions are the Fog Water Collectors (FWCs) that are placed in areas, where the use of conventional methods to collect water is impossible or inadequate. The most common fog collecting medium in FWC is Raschel mesh, which in our study is modified with electrospun polyamide 6 (PA6) nanofibers. The hydrophilic PA6 nanofibers were directly deposited on Raschel meshes to create the hierarchical structure that increases the effective surface area which enhances the ability to catch water droplets from fog. The meshes and the wetting behavior were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and environmental SEM (ESEM). We performed the fog water collection experiments on various configurations of Raschel meshes with hydrophilic PA6 nanofibers. The addition of hydrophilic nanofibers allowed us to obtain 3 times higher water collection rate of collecting water from fog. Within this study, we show the innovative and straightforward way to modify the existing technology that improves water collection by changing the mechanisms of droplet formation on the mesh.

SOLAR-POWERED SYSTEM EXTRACTS DRINKABLE WATER FROM "DRY" AIR MIT ENGINEERS HAVE MADE THEIR INITIAL DESIGN MORE PRACTICAL, EFFICIENT, AND SCALABLE. (~1 L/m^2/day) https://news.mit.edu/2020/solar-extracts-drinkable-water-1014 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hoXj-j0VSTA&t=3s (1 min) https://www.cell.com/joule/fulltext/S2542-4351(20)30444-X Instead of the MOFs, the new design uses an adsorbent material called a zeolite, which in this case is composed of a microporous iron aluminophosphate. The material is widely available, stable, and has the right adsorbent properties to provide an efficient water production system based just on typical day-night temperature fluctuations and heating with sunlight. The two-stage design developed by LaPotin makes clever use of the heat that is generated whenever water changes phase. The sun's heat is collected by a solar absorber plate at the top of the box-like system and warms the zeolite, releasing the moisture the material has captured overnight. That vapor condenses on a collector plate - a process that releases heat as well. The collector plate is a copper sheet directly above and in contact with the second zeolite layer, where the heat of condensation is used to release the vapor from that subsequent layer. Droplets of water collected from each of the two layers can be funneled together into a collecting tank.

OFF-GRID WATER WITH AIR AND SUNLIGHT (14+ min) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KlUQ1pneow8 I make my own water using solar energy. This is my review of SOURCE Hydropanels from Zero Mass Water. I spent my own money on these. This is not a sponsored video nor do I get any commission if you buy them. Let me know in the comments if you want more content on these and thanks for watching! sam.wormley@gmail.com