Personal Transportation without Gasoline
http://edu-observatory.org/olli/Transportation/index.html



PERSONAL TRANSPORTATION MODES (without CO2 emissions)
  Human Powered 
    Walking/Running/Skateboards
    Bicycles
    Skis
    Rowboats, Canoes, and Kayaks 
  Wind Powered
    Sailboats

PERSONAL TRANSPORTATION MODES (minimizing CO2 emissions)
    Electric Vehicles (EVs)
    Hybrid Vehicles
    Fuel Cell (Hydrogen) Vehicles
    
 


ELECTRIC VEHICLES (EVs) Electric Vehicle Benefits (DOE) https://www.energy.gov/eere/electricvehicles/electric-vehicle-benefits Plug-in electric vehicles (also known as electric cars or EVs) are connected, fun, and practical. They can reduce emissions and even save you money. Fueling with electricity offers some advantages not available in conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. Because electric motors react quickly, EVs are very responsive and have very good torque. EVs are often more digitally connected than conventional vehicles, with many EV charging stations providing the option to control charging from a smartphone app. Just like a smartphone, you can plug in your EV when you get home and have it ready for you to use the next morning. Since the electric grid is available almost anywhere, there are a variety of options for charging: at home, at work or on the road. By charging often, you may never need to go to a gas station again! Electric car range and efficiency (EPA Data) https://pushevs.com/electric-car-range-efficiency-epa/ Combined City/Hwy MPG (DOE) https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/PowerSearch.do?action=noform&path=1&year1=2019&year2=2020&vtype=Electric EVs, Oil, And ICE: Impact By 2023 And Beyond https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUC6lsLr04I https://seekingalpha.com/article/4225153-evs-oil-and-ice-impact-2023-and-beyond Inside Clean Energy: How Soon Will An EV Cost the Same as a Gasoline Vehicle? Sooner Than You Think. https://insideclimatenews.org/news/29072020/inside-clean-energy-electric-vehicle-agriculture-truck-costs Just Have A Think: Electric vehicles. To buy or not to buy? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VyZOLMeMYnI https://theicct.org Electric vehicles. To buy or not to buy? That is the question! Many of us still labour under prejudices and misperceptions that are years or even decades out of date. Misperceptions that are enthusiastically reinforced by the fossil fuel industry! But with battery prices tumbling and governments around the world now beginning to enact legislation to ban the sale of internal combustion engine cars in the next few years, all the major manufacturers are investing billions in research and development to bring us some spectacular electric choices. In fact there's never been a better time to have a think about EVs. https://insideevs.com https://insideevs.com/reviews/ <== https://insideevs.com/reviews/344001/compare-evs/ <== https://insideevs.com/features/402084/video-tesla-model-y-incredible-guide/ https://insideevs.com/reviews/406411/video-insideevs-tesla-model-y-review/ LEGACY AUTOMAKERS: BEWARE THE IDES OF MARCH https://insideevs.com/features/402395/tesla-model-y-market-impact-analyzed/ TESLA The Future of Driving https://www.tesla.com/autopilot TESLA Impact Report (2019) https://www.tesla.com/ns_videos/2019-tesla-impact-report.pdf TESLA Service https://www.tesla.com/service TESLA Y (2020) https://www.tesla.com/modely Owners Manual TESLA Y TEARDOWN (Munro & Co. 40+ Video Series) <== https://munrolive.com/model-y-teardown Tesla Model Y: 10 Facts You Probably Didn't Know https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v82aCWlZQtk Analyzed: Tesla Model Y Comes Out Kicking (18+ min) https://insideevs.com/features/402395/tesla-model-y-market-impact-analyzed/ TESLA Y REVIEWS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GU_8PdOJIGo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-ap2ntgXKE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9UO6CWL578 https://insideevs.com/tesla/model-y/reviews/ TESLA'S FOUNDERS ON ELON MUSK AND THE EARLY DAYS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eblPwXFb7TE Nissan LEAF (2020) https://www.nissanusa.com/vehicles/electric-cars/leaf.html Owners Manual Chevrolet BOLT EV (2020) https://www.chevrolet.com/electric/bolt-ev Owners Manual Hyundai Kona Electric (2020) https://www.hyundaiusa.com/us/en/vehicles/kona-electric Hyundai IONIQ Electric (2020) https://www.hyundaiusa.com/us/en/vehicles/ioniq-electric Lucid Air (2021-2022) Challenging Tesla https://www.lucidmotors.com/air

HYBRID VEHICLES Greater Fuel Efficiency Has Many Benefits (EPA) https://blog.epa.gov/tag/hybrid-vehicles/ Early in his term, President Obama signed Executive Order 13514 "Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance," which sets sustainability goals for federal agencies and focuses on greening the government. EPA is implementing this in many ways, including through the management of our fleet of vehicles leased from the General Services Administration. Here in Region 2, employees often use these government-owned vehicles to drive to sites, conduct sampling or inspections, or attend public meetings. As the leases for EPA Region 2 vehicles expire, we are moving toward more fuel efficient vehicles. What are the benefits to increased fuel efficiency? For EPA, it reduces our reliance on gasoline, trims our operating costs and shrinks our environmental footprint. For the community, it means that we are putting less green house gases in the air and that we are contributing less to smog that impacts our air quality and health. Explaining Electric & Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (EPA) https://www.epa.gov/greenvehicles/explaining-electric-plug-hybrid-electric-vehicles Toyota Hybrid Vehicles Lineup https://www.toyota.com/hybrid/ https://www.toyota.com/priusprime/ https://www.toyota.com/priusprime/2020/features/mpg/1239 Prius Prime Owners Manual Hyundai SONATA Plug-in Hybrid (2020) https://www.hyundaiusa.com/us/en/vehicles/sonata-plug-in-hybrid Hyundai SONATA Owners Manual

FUEL CELL (HYDROGEN) VEHICLES Fuel Cells & Vehicles (EPA) https://archive.epa.gov/otaq/fuelcell/web/html/basicinfo.html#background Advantages and Disadvantages https://futureofworking.com/10-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-hydrogen-fuel-cells/ Hydrogen is the simplest element because it consists of a single electron and proton. That means it is also the most plentiful element that we know of in the universe today. Interestingly enough, hydrogen doesn't actually occur naturally on our planet as a gas. We always have it combined with other elements to create something new. When you combine one oxygen and two hydrogen, for example, you will get water. We can also find hydrogen in several organic compounds that we use for fuel today. These items are called "hydrocarbons," and they make up most of what we use for heating, driving, and similar needs. Propane, methanol, natural gas, and even gasoline all come from hydrocarbons. We also produce several chemicals and other usable goods from them through the heating process of reformation. Our current technology requires us to make hydrogen by separating it from natural gas, but we can also create it by sending an electrical current through water to separate those components as well. Some bacteria and algae use sunlight to create hydrogen under specific conditions. Because it is such a high energy resource, NASA has used liquid hydrogen as a fuel since the 1970s. Now we are looking at the advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen fuel cells to see if they would be useful in other vehicles or situations. Compare Fuel Cell Vehicles (DOE) https://fueleconomy.gov/feg/fcv_sbs.shtml https://fueleconomy.gov/feg/fuelcell.shtml Europe is going all-out on hydrogen energy. Why not the US? https://thebulletin.org/2020/08/europe-is-going-all-out-on-hydrogen-energy-why-not-the-us/ Honda Clarity (2020) https://automobiles.honda.com/clarity Honda Clarity Owners Manual Navigation Manual Hyundai Nexo (2020) https://www.hyundaiusa.com/us/en/vehicles/nexo Hyundai Nexo Owners Manual (2019) Toyota Mirai (2020) https://www.toyota.com/mirai/fcv.html Toyota Mirai Owners Manual

POWER SOURCES Fossil Fuel Currently Powering the Electric Grid https://misortwd.azurewebsites.net/MISORTWD/dashboard.html?fuelMix&disableMobileInterface=true https://www.misoenergy.org Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc. (MISO) is an essential link in the safe, cost-effective delivery of electric power across much of North America. We are committed to reliability, the nondiscriminatory operation of the bulk power transmission system, and to collaborating on creating cost-effective and innovative solutions for our changing industry. Best Solar Panels (2020) https://news.energysage.com/best-solar-panels-complete-ranking/ Finding the best solar panels for your home can feel like a daunting challenge. There are more than a hundred different brands of solar panels and other solar equipment on the market at any given point. In this article, we'll discuss how solar panel manufacturers stack up to one another, and who makes the best solar panels. Find the best solar panels (2020) Compare solar panels by type, efficiency and availability https://www.consumeraffairs.com/solar-energy/best-solar-panels.html Solar panels are a significant investment, so it's crucial to find a product that fits your needs. Look for panels from solar energy companies that have high efficiency rates and offer a comprehensive warranty on product and workmanship. High-efficiency panels let you produce the most power with limited space, and warranties reduce maintenance cost if you have problems with the solar energy system. With all factors being equal - location, available space (roof or another dedicated area), shading, climate and natural degradation of the panels- monocrystalline panels are typically a good choice for residential use. Top-rated solar panel companies should offer a high-efficiency rate and comprehensive warranty options. It is also important to evaluate the quality of materials and labor and the reputation of the manufacturer or provider. The durability and ability of solar panels to produce electricity depend on several factors like the quality of materials built into them, weather and location of the panels in your home for optimum sunlight intake. Solar panels degrade through constant exposure to the elements. Your manufacturer should be able to guarantee that their solar panels are able to withstand the conditions in your area. SUNPOWER https://us.sunpower.com/home-solar SunPower offers best-in-class digital solutions that empower homeowners to design and manage their own solar system without ever leaving home. Our customers tell us they feel great knowing they've chosen the most efficient and reliable solar backed by an industry-leading warranty. TESLA Solar Roof & Solar Panels https://www.tesla.com/solarroof https://www.tesla.com/solarpanels EnergyPal Helps You Go Solar https://energypal.com Solar Panels for your Home https://www.idealenergysolar.com/residential/ We help customers lower their electric bills, and create savings for years to come. Ideal Energy's solar service combines time sensitive tax incentives with quality equipment for best return on investment available in the Midwest solar energy market. sam.wormley@gmail.com