Spooky Action at a Distance and Quantum Technology

Quantum Computing

http://edu-observatory.org/olli/Quantum/Week4.html

We're Close to a Universal Quantum Computer (8+ min) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6yaY4Fw-ovM Quantum computers are just on the horizon as both tech giants and startups are working to kickstart the next computing revolution. How Does a Quantum Computer Work? (7 min) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g_IaVepNDT4 Quantum Computer in a Nutshell (Documentary) (30 min) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0dXNmbiGPS4 The reservoir of possibilities offered by the fundamental laws of Nature, is the key point in the development of science and technology. Quantum computing is the next step on the road to broaden our perspective from which we currently look at the Universe. The movie shows the history of progress in this fascinating field of science, introduces the most promising models and algorithms, explains the advantages of quantum computers over classical solutions, and finally presents wonderful people thanks to which the quality of our lives is constantly being improved. Timeline of quantum computing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_quantum_computing Quantum computing, which holds the promise of outclassing even the world's fastest supercomputers, at least for certain types of problems, is now at a similar stage in its development. Prototypes are functioning but it is not clear what shape the machines will eventually take. One big question, for example, is whether "qubits", which are the quantum equivalent of transistors, will live in tiny loops of superconducting wire cooled to ultra-low temperatures, be ions trapped in magnetic fields or rely on some other technology. D-Wave demonstrates first large-scale quantum simulation of topological state of matter https://phys.org/news/2018-08-d-wave-large-scale-quantum-simulation-topological.html "This paper represents a breakthrough in the simulation of physical systems which are otherwise essentially impossible," said 2016 Nobel laureate Dr. J. Michael Kosterlitz. "The test reproduces most of the expected results, which is a remarkable achievement. This gives hope that future quantum simulators will be able to explore more complex and poorly understood systems so that one can trust the simulation results in quantitative detail as a model of a physical system. I look forward to seeing future applications of this simulation method." Researchers 'teleport' a quantum gate https://phys.org/news/2018-09-teleport-quantum-gate.html Yale University researchers have demonstrated one of the key steps in building the architecture for modular quantum computers: the "teleportation" of a quantum gate between two qubits, on demand. The key principle behind this new work is quantum teleportation, a unique feature of quantum mechanics that has previously been used to transmit unknown quantum states between two parties without physically sending the state itself. Using a theoretical protocol developed in the 1990s, Yale researchers experimentally demonstrated a quantum operation, or "gate," without relying on any direct interaction. One step closer to complex quantum teleportation https://phys.org/news/2018-11-closer-complex-quantum-teleportation.html?utm_source=nwletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=weekly-nwletter Quantum computers are about to get real https://www.sciencenews.org/article/quantum-computers-are-about-get-real Quantum computing's promise is rooted in quantum mechanics, the counterintuitive physics that governs tiny entities such as atoms, electrons and molecules. The basic element of a quantum computer is the qubit (pronounced "CUE-bit"). Unlike a standard computer bit, which can take on a value of 0 or 1, a qubit can be 0, 1 or a combination of the two - a sort of purgatory between 0 and 1 known as a quantum superposition. When a qubit is measured, there's some chance of getting 0 and some chance of getting 1. But before it's measured, it's both 0 and 1. Because qubits can represent 0 and 1 simultaneously, they can encode a wealth of information. In computations, both possibilities - 0 and 1 - are operated on at the same time, allowing for a sort of parallel computation that speeds up solutions. Another qubit quirk: Their properties can be intertwined through the quantum phenomenon of entanglement (SN: 4/29/17, p. 8). A measurement of one qubit in an entangled pair instantly reveals the value of its partner, even if they are far apart - what Albert Einstein called "spooky action at a distance." Arrays of atoms emerge as dark horse candidate to power quantum computers https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/09/arrays-atoms-emerge-dark-horse-candidate-power-quantum-computers?utm_campaign=news_daily_2018-09-26&et_rid=17102414&et_cid=2393578 In a small basement laboratory, Harry Levine, a Harvard University graduate student in physics, can assemble a rudimentary computer in a fraction of a second. There isn't a processor chip in sight; his computer is powered by 51 rubidium atoms that reside in a glass cell the size of a matchbox. To create his computer, he lines up the atoms in single file, using a laser split into 51 beams. More lasers-six beams per atom-slow the atoms until they are nearly motionless. Then, with yet another set of lasers, he coaxes the atoms to interact with each other, and, in principle, perform calculations. Because neutral atoms lack electric charge and interact reluctantly with other atoms, they would seem to make poor qubits. But by using specifically timed laser pulses, physicists can excite an atom's outermost electron and move it away from the nucleus, inflating the atom to billions of times its usual size. Once in this so-called Rydberg state, the atom behaves more like an ion, interacting electromagnetically with neighboring atoms and preventing them from becoming Rydberg atoms themselves. Multiparticle, multidimensional entanglement https://physicstoday.scitation.org/do/10.1063/PT.6.1.20181101a/full/ Algorithms for Quantum Computers https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/algorithms-for-quantum-computers/ Within a few years quantum computers could catch up to or even outperform classical computers thanks to significant work on hardware and the algorithms to run on it. Quantum computers exploit quantum mechanics to perform calculations. Their basic unit of computation, the qubit, is analogous to the standard bit (zero or one), but it is in a quantum superposition between two computational quantum states: it can be a zero and a one at the same time. That property, along with another uniquely quantum feature known as entanglement, can enable quantum computers to resolve certain classes of problems more efficiently than any conventional computer can. Wikipedia -- Quantum computing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_computing Wikipedia -- Quantum Decoherence https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_computing#Quantum_decoherence Wikipedia -- Qubit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qubit Why Quantum Computers Will Be Super Awesome, Someday https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-11-14/why-quantum-computers-will-be-super-awesome-someday-quicktake sam.wormley@gmail.com