Spooky Action at a Distance and Quantum Technology
Quantum Effects Observed in Nature

http://edu-observatory.org/olli/Quantum/Week2.html




My Fridays with Dave Martin

What Effects Of Quantum Physics Can We Observe In Our Daily
Lives?  Everything except gravity.  What?
  https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2017/01/20/what-effects-of-quantum-physics-can-we-observe-in-our-daily-lives/#13c841ad7725

  In a trivial sense, everything you see around you is a
  quantum phenomenon because it's made of elementary particles
  that are described by quantum mechanics. It so happens that
  quantum mechanics reproduces classical physics in the
  appropriate limits, but they're all fundamentally quantum. A
  basketball bouncing is a quantum effect because it's made up
  of molecules all obeying quantum rules, and all those
  molecules just happen to add up to a basketball. That's
  probably not what you wanted to hear, though.

  In a slightly stronger sense, classical physics is an
  inadequate way to describe much of anything at a fundamental
  level. Say you're a classical physicist and you want to
  build a bridge. You'll be able to do it because you can use
  the stress-strain relationship of your steel girders to
  model the deformation of the bridge under its load, and you
  can work it all out with a bunch of math and computer
  models. But where does this stress-strain relationship come
  from? A classical physicist has no idea. If you want to know
  why your steel has the properties it does, you need to know
  the energy change as you change its shape, but that energy
  is stored in electrons orbiting nuclei, so it's quantum
  mechanical. Indeed, you can estimate the Young's modulus of
  steel from fundamental things like the electron charge,
  etc., but you will need to include Planck's constant in that
  calculation. That's not special to steel girders - there's
  no classical theory of why matter works out the way it does.
  Classical atoms should decay. Without quantum mechanics,
  there's no matter at all.










Wikipedia -- Pauli exclusion principle
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauli_exclusion_principle

  The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical
  principle which states that two or more identical fermions
  (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same
  quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously. In the
  case of electrons in atoms, it can be stated as follows: it
  is impossible for two electrons of a poly-electron atom to
  have the same values of the four quantum numbers: n, the
  principal quantum number, l, the angular momentum quantum
  number, ml, the magnetic quantum number, and ms, the spin
  quantum number. For example, if two electrons reside in the
  same orbital, and if their n, l, and ml values are the same,
  then their ms must be different, and thus the electrons must
  have opposite half-integer spin projections of 1/2 and -1/2.
  This principle was formulated by Austrian physicist Wolfgang
  Pauli in 1925 for electrons, and later extended to all
  fermions with his spin-statistics theorem of 1940.
  
  In one sense, it's hard not to see quantum mechanics in
  everyday life. For example, the existence of complex
  chemistry and the volume occupied by ordinary matter are
  both direct consequences of the Pauli exclusion principle.
  









Energy Level Within Atomic Structure


Wikipedia -- Emission spectrum
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emission_spectrum

  The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical
  compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic
  radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a
  transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
  The photon energy of the emitted photon is equal to the
  energy difference between the two states.

  

  Use a prism (or a diffraction grating if you have one) to
  break up the light coming from a florescent bulb. You'll see
  a bunch of individual lines rather than a continuous band of
  colors. This comes from the discrete energy levels in atoms
  and molecules, which is a consequence of quantum mechanics.





Quantum mechanics and everyday nature 
Reflections on Everyday Quantum Events
  https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/65397/quantum-mechanics-and-everyday-nature

  Mirror
  
  A roaming electron does not sound all that unusual until you
  realize that electrons are so very light that quantum
  mechanics cannot be ignored. What quantum mechanics does to
  very light objects is cause their quantum descriptions to
  start taking up space across the entire volume of the metal
  over which they roam. That is, instead of an electron moving
  back and for the across a crystal as an massive classical
  object would, an undisturbed and freely roaming electron is
  most accurately represented as being equally located at all
  locations in the metal at the same time.

  The quantum magic begins whenever you look into an ordinary
  mirror. As soon as you do, you are already gazing into a sea
  of electrons that from a quantum mechanical perspective
  don't quite exist in ordinary space. They are "lost" in the
  XYZ space we know best, a space in which their accurate
  quantum representations are in some cases as large as the
  entire surface of the mirror.

  And most of those lost electrons are also hidden! That's
  because light that we see bouncing off a mirror comes from
  only a very tiny percentage of the Fermi sea electrons,
  specifically only the extremely hot ones at the very top of
  the Fermi sea. This is because they are the only electrons
  that have any "wiggle room" left to accept a photon and play
  catch with it.

  What happens is this: An electron at the Fermi sea surface
  can accept a particle of light, a photon, and by doing so
  speed itself up just a little more. But unlike the electrons
  further down in the sea, when an electron at the surface
  speeds up it creates an "empty spot" in the Fermi sea. The
  process is closely akin to the ways a splash of water can
  rise up into air, but then realizes it no longer has any
  water below it to keep it supported. Unlike the water in the
  see, the splash above the surface is not stable: It has to
  fall back to the surface.

  Very much like such a splash of water, an electron at the
  Fermi surface that has been "splashed up" by an incoming
  particle of light (photon) has no support underneath it to
  keep it there. So, it must fall back to the surface of the
  Fermi sea. As it does so, it gives up the photon energy that
  it held ever so briefly by re-emitting a nearly identical
  version of the photon it just absorbed. This re-emission of
  a photon from an electron at the Fermi surface is the
  smallest and most fundamental unit of reflection, the event
  from which larger_scale reflections are composed.


Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle Explained  (4+ min)
  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a8FTr2qMutA
  
  


Quantum effects observed in photosynthesis
  https://phys.org/news/2014-01-quantum-mechanics-efficiency-photosynthesis.html
  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RSKI5A_lsg  (4+ min)

Wikipedia -- Quantum Tunneling
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunnel_diode
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_tunnelling

  Quantum tunneling is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where
  a particle passes through a potential barrier that it
  classically cannot surmount. This plays an essential role in
  several physical phenomena, such as the nuclear fusion that
  occurs in main sequence stars like the Sun. It has important
  applications to modern devices such as the tunnel diode,
  quantum computing, and the scanning tunnelling microscope.
  The effect was predicted in the early 20th century, and its
  acceptance as a general physical phenomenon came
  mid-century.

  Fundamental quantum mechanical concepts are central to this
  phenomenon, which makes quantum tunneling one of the novel
  implications of quantum mechanics. Quantum tunneling is
  projected to create physical limits to how small transistors
  can get, due to electrons being able to tunnel past them if
  they are too small.

  Tunneling is often explained in terms of the Heisenberg
  uncertainty principle and the premise that the quantum
  object has more than one fixed state (not a wave nor a
  particle) in general.  

Liquid helium-3 and helium-4 are remarkable substances. 
  https://physicstoday.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/PT.3.4067
  
  Liquid helium-3 and helium-4 are remarkable substances. They
  are quantum liquids, meaning that their behavior is governed
  by the laws of quantum mechanics. Because of their small
  atomic mass, each isotope exists in a liquid state down to
  the temperature of absolute zero. And at sufficiently low
  temperature, each becomes a superfluid. However, the two
  isotopes have very different properties because 3He is a
  fermion and 4He is a boson. As a result of their different
  statistics, superfluidity in 3He appears at a temperature
  one-thousandth of that at which superfluid 4He forms. A
  second difference is that 3He has multiple thermodynamic
  phases.
    
The quest to test quantum entanglement
  https://www.symmetrymagazine.org/article/the-quest-to-test-quantum-entanglement
  

 
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