Spooky Action at a Distance and Quantum Technology
Quantum Mechanics Overview


  In physics, reality is based on the empirical results of 
  observation and experiment.
Visualization of Quantum Physics (Quantum Mechanics)  (14+ min)
  This video visually demonstrates some basic quantum physics
  concepts using the simple case of a free particle. 

Quantum Mechanics: Animation explaining quantum physics  (26 min)
  Covers all topics, including wave particle duality,
  Schrodinger's cat, EPR / Bell inequality, and the
  relationship between measurement and entanglement.  Quantum
  Mechanics and Quantum Physics.

Einstein's "Spooky Action at a Distance" (historical)

  Einstein's phrase "spooky action at a distance" has become
  synonymous with one of the most famous episodes in the
  history of physics-his battle with Bohr in the 1930s over
  the completeness of quantum mechanics.

  Einstein's weapons in this battle were thought experiments
  that he designed to highlight what he believed were the
  inadequacies of the new theory.

  Quoting John Wheeler from Stephen Hawking's "A Brief History
  Of Time, A Reader's Companion", "I had worked with the other
  great man in the quantum debate, Niels Bohr, in Copenhagen.
  And I know no greater debate in the last hundreds of years
  than the debate between Bohr and Einstein, no greater debate
  between two greater men, or one that extended over a longer
  period of time--twenty-eight years--at a higher level of
  colleagueship. To put it in brief: Does the world exist out
  there independent of us, as Einstein thought; or, as Bohr
  thought, is there some sense in which we, through our choice
  of observing equipment, have something to do with what comes
  about..." Einstein refused to believe in a reality that
  precluded cause and effect. "God does not play dice with the
  universe." he declared. He especially objected to the
  theory's insistence that particles, forces, and events
  seemed to come into existence only when a measurement or
  observation was made."

  For more than half a century physicists and philosophers
  debated whether the quantum theory really was a complete and
  accurate description of reality. Then in 1964, physicist
  John Bell proposed a brilliant method to resolve the issue.
  "Bell's Theorem", says the eminent physicist Henry Stapps,
  "is the most profound discovery of science." By the early
  1980s a number of elegant experiments applying Bell's
  Theorem have proved that quantum theory, which speaks in
  terms of probabilities rather than actualities, is indeed a
  complete explanation of reality... God DOES play dice with
  the universe!

Is the Moon There When Nobody Looks? Reality and the Quantum Theory
Wikipedia -- Bell's theorem 

Wikipedia -- Introduction to quantum mechanics

Summary of Important Ideas in Quantum Physics

Wikipedia -- Quantum entanglement
  Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs
  when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact,
  or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum
  state of each particle cannot be described independently of
  the state of the other(s), even when the particles are
  separated by a large distance-instead, a quantum state must
  be described for the system as a whole.

  Measurements of physical properties such as position,
  momentum, spin, and polarization, performed on entangled
  particles are found to be correlated. For example, if a pair
  of particles is generated in such a way that their total
  spin is known to be zero, and one particle is found to have
  clockwise spin on a certain axis, the spin of the other
  particle, measured on the same axis, will be found to be
  counterclockwise, as is to be expected due to their
  entanglement. However, this behavior gives rise to seemingly
  paradoxical effects: any measurement of a property of a
  particle performs an irreversible collapse on that particle
  and will change the original quantum state. In the case of
  entangled particles, such a measurement will be on the
  entangled system as a whole. Given that the statistics of
  these measurements cannot be replicated by models in which
  each particle has its own state independent of the other, it
  appears that one particle of an entangled pair "knows" what
  measurement has been performed on the other, and with what
  outcome, even though there is no known means for such
  information to be communicated between the particles, which
  at the time of measurement may be separated by arbitrarily
  large distances.

Quantum Entanglement & Spooky Action at a Distance
Bell's theorem (Review)

Book Recommendation
  "Entanglement: The Greatest Mystery in Physics"
  Amir D Aczel
  2002 John Wiley & Sons/Four Walls Eight Windows

  "There are two kinds of books about quantum
  mechanics. There are those in which we learn
  about abstract concepts such as Hilbert spaces,
  state vectors and density matrices, but where the
  author never addresses - or only pays lip-service
  to - the question of what quantum mechanics
  actually means. This is the approach often taken in
  textbooks. The other, quite opposite, approach
  focuses on the interpretative question - drawing all
  kinds of conclusions and analogies, talking about
  telepathy and other mysteries, and perhaps even
  claiming that quantum mechanics transcends
  Western philosophy.

  "Neither approach is very helpful when one wants
  to understand what quantum mechanics really
  means in a deep philosophical sense. Amir Aczel's
  new book on entanglement - falling as it does into
  neither category - avoids such pitfalls."

  ~Anton Zeilinger from the Institute of Experimental
  Physics at the University of Vienna reviews the
  book in the May issue of Physics World

Quantum entanglement of identical particles by standard 
information-theoretic notions