Photography Tips and Techniques
dSLR Camera Basics

http://edu-observatory.org/olli/Photography/Week1b.html



DSLR simulator App for photography instructors & students
  https://apps.apple.com/us/app/camerasim/id490143473
  https://download.cnet.com/CameraSim/3000-20414_4-77468144.html
  
  We use DSLR simulator App to demo the effects of Aperture 
  and the effects of Shutter Speed for control of how images 
  are rendered. 
  
  
  Effects of Aperture
    http://www.exposureguide.com/focusing-basics.htm

    Manipulation of depth of field is a good way to modify
    the characteristics of your photo, and manipulating the
    aperture is the ideal way to do this because it has
    little or no effect on composition. You simply need to
    change the shutter speed (or change the light
    sensitivity, ISO setting) to compensate for the changes
    in the exposure from the adjustments to the f-number.
    Changes in distance and focal length also affect DOF, but
    these changes have trade-offs in terms of composition.

    

  Understanding aperture -- and how it can help your photography 
    http://www.digital-photography-tips.net/aperture.html

    "Photographers know that one of the characteristics that
    separates photographic imaging from drawing or painting
    is the matter of focus".

    "The lens introduces an opportunity for selectivity in
    image-making, portraying objects in the near field and
    background with a special kind of de-emphasis: out of
    focus. Observant photographers have noticed that not all
    lenses are created equal: large aperture lenses show
    strong out-of-focus effects while small-aperture lenses
    lead simply to a softening of the image. And even among
    lenses of equal focal length and aperture, there are
    differences. The Japanese apparently refer to the quality
    of the out-of-focus image as 'bokeh'. What is bokeh, and
    why are lenses different from one another"?


  Effects of Shutter Speed
    Introduction to Shutter Speed in Digital Photography
      http://www.digital-photography-school.com/shutter-speed
    Back to Basics - Shutter Speed
      http://www.diyphotography.net/shutter-speed

    


  Manual, Aperture and Shutter Priority modes explained
    http://digital-photography-school.com/getting-off-auto-manual-aperture-and-shutter-priority-modes-explained/

 
 
 
  


Exposure Compensation (for automated exposure modes) http://www.cs.mtu.edu/~shene/DigiCam/User-Guide/995/EXPOSURE/EV-compensation.html http://www.shortcourses.com/use/using3-4.html Cameras allow the user to conveniently adjust the exposure to over or under expose in increments of 1/3 stop up to plus or minus who stops. -2 -1 0 +1 +2 Over exposing by +1 stop might be just right |..|..|..|..| photographing a bright scene as the one above. ^ The snow scene above is typical of scenes that are lighter than 18 percent gray. Most of the important tones in the scene are at the lighter end of the gray scale. The overall "average" tone would be about one stop brighter than middle gray. For a good picture you have to increase the exposure by one stop (+1) to lighten it. If you didn't do this, the snow in the scene would appear too gray (bottom). Using the Focus/Exposure Lock Many digital cameras are set to default to focus continually or have another focus mode that causes the camera to automatically select the main area that will be focused in a scene. These modes can be unreliable, resulting in poorly focused, soft looking images. For optimal results for the vast majority of scenes, switch to a single or center area focus mode and lock focus where you want it. Also make sure to set the diopter setting so that lines, boxes and information in the viewfinder is sharp. When pressing the shutter button half way, the camera comes alive--determining where to focus and determining what combinations shutter speed, aperture and sometimes ISO setting to give a proper exposure. Many times you want to focus on a subject that not in the center of the image. When the subject you want to expose (or focus) correctly is off-center, you can lock exposure (and focus) by pressing the shutter button halfway down and then, without releasing the shutter button, recompose the image.

TO REALLY CHALLEGE YOURSELF -- SHOOT IN MANUAL (M) EXPOSURE MODE. Master Your DSLR Camera, Part 2: Manual Mode and More https://lifehacker.com/328488/master-your-dslr-camera-part-2-manual-mode-and-more

Photo Assignment - Master Manual Focus and Focus Lock https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hXYaWoO6q04 In the same field of view you need to see two objects: 1. Near object (say 12-18 inches from the camera) 2. Far object (10 feet or all the way to the distant mountains) Why is it better to use a large aperture (low f/number)? Make an image focussed on the closer object. The near object should be critically sharp and the far object a bit blurred. Make an image focussed on the far object. The far object should be critically sharp and the near object a bit blurred. In addition to you demonstrating that you can control what is going to be in focus, you can at the same time be creative and make a compelling image of something you want to capture and share.

Basic Photography: A Set of Exercises http://teeksaphoto.org/Writing/BasicPhotoExercises.html Photography Tutorials http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials.htm http://www.geofflawrence.com

Book Recommendations John Berger About Looking Pantheon (1980) ISBN: 0679736557 As a novelist, art critic, and cultural historian, John Berger is a writer of dazzling eloquence and arresting insight whose work amounts to a subtle, powerful critique of the canons of our civilization. In About Looking he explores our role as observers to reveal new layers of meaning in what we see. How do the animals we look at in zoos remind us of a relationship between man and beast all but lost in the twentieth century? What is it about looking at war photographs that doubles their already potent violence? How do the nudes of Rodin betray the threats to his authority and potency posed by clay and flesh? And how does solitude inform the art of Giacometti? In asking these and other questions, Berger quietly -- but fundamentally -- alters the vision of anyone who reads his work. Leslie Stroebel, Hollis Todd, Richard Zakia Visual Concepts for Photographers Focal Press Limited (1980) ISBN: 0240510259 sam.wormley@gmail.com