Heat Wave: Cause and Survival

Feynman Lecture No. 1 - Atoms in Motion

  Attractive intermolecular forces are categorized into the 
  following types:
    o Hydrogen bonding
    o Ion-dipole forces and ion-induced dipole forces
    o Van der Waals forces - Keesom force, Debye force, and 
      London dispersion force


EXTREMELY HOT, HUMID WEATHER COULD KILL A PERSON FAR MORE EASILY THAN WE THOUGHT https://www.sciencealert.com/human-survival-in-hot-and-humid-conditions-is The human body might not cope with nearly as much heat and humidity as theory predicts. One of the first studies to directly assess humid heat stress among young people has found that when humidity is at an absolute max, the upper limit of human adaptability is just 31°C (87°F).

SOME DEFINITIONS Heat Wave https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_wave https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-causes-a-heat-wave.html What Causes A Heat Wave? A heat wave is formed when the upper atmosphere contains high pressure which makes it stationary over a region. This stationary mass of air can remain stagnant for several days and weeks, trapping more heat and reducing convection currents. As a result, there is accumulated heat and high humidity without any precipitation or rainfall. This creates the abnormally high temperatures. Heat waves are quite common during the summer season, from May to November in the northern hemisphere. The high pressure forces air to sink to the surface of the land and acts as a barrier for heat to rise. This blankets the earth surface and traps all elements of weather without allowing them to escape. The Hazards Of A Heat Wave A heat wave is potentially more dangerous than other natural events such as hurricanes, lightning, and tornadoes. Aside from causing uncomfortably high temperatures, heat waves can result in heat illness, poor air quality, wildfires, and drought. Severe heat waves have caused catastrophic crop failures, thousands of deaths from hyperthermia, and widespread power outages due to increased use of air conditioning. A heat wave is considered extreme weather that can be a natural disaster, and a danger because heat and sunlight may overheat the human body. Heat waves can usually be detected using forecasting instruments so that a warning call can be issued. Heat Exhaustion https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_exhaustion https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heat-exhaustion/symptoms-causes/syc-20373250 Heat exhaustion is a severe form of heat illness. It is a medical emergency. Heat exhaustion is caused by the loss of water and electrolytes through sweating. Heat Stroke https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_stroke https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heat-stroke/symptoms-causes/syc-20353581 Heatstroke is a condition caused by your body overheating, usually as a result of prolonged exposure to or physical exertion in high temperatures. This most serious form of heat injury, heatstroke, can occur if your body temperature rises to 104°F (40°C) or higher. The condition is most common in the summer months and heat waves. Heatstroke requires emergency treatment. Untreated heatstroke can quickly damage your brain, heart, kidneys and muscles. The damage worsens the longer treatment is delayed, increasing your risk of serious complications or death.

HOW TO STAY SAFE DURING EXCESSIVE HEAT EVENTS (from the National Weather Service) https://www.weather.gov/safety/heat-during Mayo Clinic - Heat Exhaustion https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heat-exhaustion/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20373253 Mayo Clinic - Heat Stroke https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heat-stroke/symptoms-causes/syc-20353581

COOLING Heat Stress Hydration https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/UserFiles/works/pdfs/2017-126.pdf Drinking enough fluids is one of the most important things you can do to prevent heat illness. Water is generally sufficient for hydration. Water will almost always maintain hydration during work in the heat, as long as you eat regular meals to replace salt lost in sweat. Opinion: Life hacks from India on how to stay cool (without an air conditioner) https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2022/08/02/1114354904/opinion-life-hacks-from-india-on-how-to-stay-cool-without-an-air-conditioner How to protect the people you care about from extreme heat https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2022/08/04/1114996392/how-to-protect-the-people-you-care-about-from-extreme-heat https://www.npr.org/2022/07/01/1109415329/how-to-stay-safe-and-cool-in-extreme-heat How to Keep Cool When You Don't Have Air Conditioning at Home https://www.ecowatch.com/staying-cool-tips-heat-climate-change.html Evaporative Cooling (won't work in high humidity) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_cooling https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporative_cooler Cooling air temperatures that can be achieved by a direct evaporative cooler at various outdoor conditions. IMPORTANT: If power fails, there is no air conditioning, no fans, water may become scarce or may not be cool enough to cool your body. The only thing that can cool you is something colder than the human body, preferably cooler than ~84°F. Water running through underground pipes will tend to be cooled (or heated) to the subsurface soil temperature. These soil depth temperatures (below) are updated daily. Average 4 inch Depth Soil Temperatures (US) https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/wcc/home/quicklinks/imap#version=158&elements=&networks=SCAN&states=!&counties=!&hucs=&minElevation=&maxElevation=&elementSelectType=all&activeOnly=true&activeForecastPointsOnly=false&hucLabels=false&hucIdLabels=false&hucParameterLabels=false&stationLabels=&overlays=&hucOverlays=&basinOpacity=100&basinNoDataOpacity=100&basemapOpacity=100&maskOpacity=0&mode=data&openSections=dataElement,parameter,date,basin,elements,location,networks&controlsOpen=true&popup=&popupMulti=&popupBasin=&base=esriNgwm&displayType=station&basinType=6&dataElement=STO&depth=-4¶meter=OBS&frequency=DAILY&duration=I&customDuration=&dayPart=E&monthPart=E&forecastPubDay=1&forecastExceedance=50&seqColor=1&divColor=3&scaleType=D&scaleMin=&scaleMax=&referencePeriodType=POR&referenceBegin=1981&referenceEnd=2010&minimumYears=20&hucAssociations=true&relativeDate=-1&lat=32.44&lon=-95.45&zoom=4.0 Average 20 inch Depth Soil Temperatures (US) https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/wcc/home/quicklinks/imap#version=158&elements=&networks=SCAN&states=!&counties=!&hucs=&minElevation=&maxElevation=&elementSelectType=all&activeOnly=true&activeForecastPointsOnly=false&hucLabels=false&hucIdLabels=false&hucParameterLabels=false&stationLabels=&overlays=&hucOverlays=&basinOpacity=100&basinNoDataOpacity=100&basemapOpacity=100&maskOpacity=0&mode=data&openSections=dataElement,parameter,date,basin,elements,location,networks&controlsOpen=true&popup=&popupMulti=&popupBasin=&base=esriNgwm&displayType=station&basinType=6&dataElement=STO&depth=-20¶meter=OBS&frequency=DAILY&duration=I&customDuration=&dayPart=E&monthPart=E&forecastPubDay=1&forecastExceedance=50&seqColor=1&divColor=3&scaleType=D&scaleMin=&scaleMax=&referencePeriodType=POR&referenceBegin=1981&referenceEnd=2010&minimumYears=20&hucAssociations=true&relativeDate=-1&lat=32.44&lon=-95.45&zoom=4.0 Average 40 inch Depth Soil Temperatures (US) https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/wcc/home/quicklinks/imap#version=158&elements=&networks=SCAN&states=!&counties=!&hucs=&minElevation=&maxElevation=&elementSelectType=all&activeOnly=true&activeForecastPointsOnly=false&hucLabels=false&hucIdLabels=false&hucParameterLabels=false&stationLabels=&overlays=&hucOverlays=&basinOpacity=100&basinNoDataOpacity=100&basemapOpacity=100&maskOpacity=0&mode=data&openSections=dataElement,parameter,date,basin,elements,location,networks&controlsOpen=true&popup=&popupMulti=&popupBasin=&base=esriNgwm&displayType=station&basinType=6&dataElement=STO&depth=-40¶meter=OBS&frequency=DAILY&duration=I&customDuration=&dayPart=E&monthPart=E&forecastPubDay=1&forecastExceedance=50&seqColor=1&divColor=3&scaleType=D&scaleMin=&scaleMax=&referencePeriodType=POR&referenceBegin=1981&referenceEnd=2010&minimumYears=20&hucAssociations=true&relativeDate=-1&lat=32.44&lon=-95.45&zoom=4.0

WATCHES, WARNINGS OR ADVISORIES Graphic Watches, Warnings or Advisories (CONUS) https://www.weather.gov Watches, Warnings or Advisories (Iowa) https://www.weather.gov/dmx/ Text Watches, Warnings or Advisories for the United States https://alerts.weather.gov/cap/us.php?x=1 Watches, Warnings or Advisories by State http://edu-observatory.org/olli/HEAT/warn_by_state.html Watches and Warnings (Iowa) https://alerts.weather.gov/cap/ia.php?x=1 Forecasts IA-C IA-H Watches, Warnings or Advisories (CONUS) Forecasts IA-C IA-H Watches, Warnings or Advisories (CONUS) Heat Waves Are Feeling Hotter, And We're Measuring Them Wrong, Too (22 August 2022) https://www.sciencealert.com/heat-waves-are-feeling-hotter-and-were-measuring-them-wrong-too IMPORTANT: One of the reasons heat can be so dangerous is because people don't take the risk seriously. It surprises many people to learn that the heat index values in the chart above are for shady locations. If you are exposed to direct sunlight, the heat index value can be increased by up to 14°F. Heat indices meeting or exceeding 103°F can lead to dangerous heat disorders with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity in the heat.

REFERENCE ARTICLES Summer Science: Clothes Keep You Cool, More Or Less
https://www.npr.org/2012/07/25/157302810/summer-science-clothes-keep-you-cool-more-or-less Think light and loose. That's because even if you don't feel like you're sweating, you still want to evaporate moisture off your skin. The loose clothing allows air to pass long the skin and exit, speeding evaporation and carrying off excess heat. A dual-mode textile for human body radiative heating and cooling https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.1700895 The dual-mode textile is composed of a bilayer emitter embedded inside an infrared-transparent nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) layer. We demonstrate that the asymmetrical characteristics of both emissivity and nanoPE thickness can result in two different heat transfer coefficients and achieve heating when the low-emissivity layer is facing outside and cooling by wearing the textile inside out when the high-emissivity layer is facing outside. This can expand the thermal comfort zone by 6.5°C (11.7°F). Numerical fitting of the data further predicts 14.7°C (26.5°F) of comfort zone expansion for dual-mode textiles with large emissivity contrast. Other Weather Resources http://edu-observatory.org/ipod-weather.html#start sam.wormley@gmail.com