Understanding Global Climate Change
Effects of Warming


Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4), Volume I (2017)
Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4), Volume II (2018)

  The National Climate Assessment (NCA) assesses the science
  of climate change and variability and its impacts across the
  United States, now and throughout this century.
  Summary Findings
  These Summary Findings represent a high-level synthesis of
  the material in the underlying report. The findings
  consolidate Key Messages and supporting evidence from 16
  national-level topic chapters, 10 regional chapters, and 2
  chapters that focus on societal response strategies
  (mitigation and adaptation). Unless otherwise noted,
  qualitative statements regarding future conditions in these
  Summary Findings are broadly applicable across the range of
  different levels of future climate change and associated
  impacts considered in this report.


Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4), Volume II (2018)

  The National Climate Assessment (NCA) assesses the science
  of climate change and variability and its impacts across the
  United States, now and throughout this century.
  About This Report
  Guide To This Report
  Chapter 1: Overview
  Chapter 2: Our Changing Climate
  Chapter 3: Water
  Chapter 4: Energy Supply, Delivery, and Demand
  Chapter 5: Land Cover and Land-Use Change
  Chapter 6: Forests
  Chapter 7: Ecosystems, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity
  Chapter 8: Coastal Effects
  Chapter 9: Oceans and Marine Resources
  Chapter 10: Agriculture and Rural Communities
  Chapter 11: Built Environment, Urban Systems, and Cities
  Chapter 12: Transportation
  Chapter 13: Air Quality
  Chapter 14: Human Health
  Chapter 15: Tribes and Indigenous Peoples
  Chapter 16: Climate Effects on U.S. International Interests
  Chapter 17: Sector Interactions, Multiple Stressors, and Complex Systems
  Chapter 18: Northeast
  Chapter 19: Southeast
  Chapter 20: U.S. Caribbean
  Chapter 21: Midwest
  Chapter 22: Northern Great Plains
  Chapter 23: Southern Great Plains
  Chapter 24: Northwest
  Chapter 25: Southwest
  Chapter 26: Alaska
  Chapter 27: Hawaii and U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands
  Chapter 28: Reducing Risks Through Adaptation Actions
  Chapter 29: Reducing Risks Through Emissions Mitigation
  Appendix 1: Report Development Process
  Appendix 2: Information in the Fourth National Climate Assessment
  Appendix 3: Data Tools and Scenarios Products
  Appendix 4: Looking Abroad: How Other Nations Approach a National Climate Assessment
  Appendix 5: Frequently Asked Questions

ISU professor of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences
Bill Gutowski - Global Climate Change 101

ISU professor of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences
Eugene S. Takle (ISU) | Outreach Presentations


NOAA | Global Climate Change Indicators

NASA | Global Climate Change (Vital Signs of the Planet)

Halfway to boiling: the city at 50C

  At 50C - halfway to water's boiling point and more than 10C
  above a healthy body temperature - heat becomes toxic. Human
  cells start to cook, blood thickens, muscles lock around the
  lungs and the brain is choked of oxygen. In dry conditions,
  sweat - the body's in-built cooling system - can lessen the
  impact. But this protection weakens if there is already
  moisture in the air.

  A so-called "wet-bulb temperature" (which factors in
  humidity) of just 35C can be fatal after a few hours to even
  the fittest person, and scientists warn climate change will
  make such conditions increasingly common in India, Pakistan,
  south-east Asia and parts of China. Even under the most
  optimistic predictions for emissions reductions, experts say
  almost half the world's population will be exposed to
  potentially deadly heat for 20 days a year by 2100.



It's probably too late to save the West Antarctic glaciers.
And East Antarctica's situation is unexpectedly precarious.

  Researchers have long recognized that the glaciers of West
  Antarctica are losing mass: Ice is oozing off the continent
  and into the sea faster than it's being replaced from above.
  But the long-term implications have been uncertain. Is the
  mass loss a short-lived response to the thermal forcing of
  warmer-than-usual ocean waters? Or will the collapse
  continue unchecked even if the forcing is removed? Two
  papers widely reported last week [May 2014] conclude that
  the West Antarctic's unstoppable collapse has probably

Discovery of recent Antarctic ice sheet collapse raises fears 
of a new global flood

Climate MADness (It is NOT A GIVEN that we will survive)

Climate Armageddon: How the World's Weather Could Quickly Run Amok [Excerpt]

Have We Passed the Point of No Return on Climate Change?
Humans may be reversing the climate clock, by 50 million years 

  All of the species on Earth today had an ancestor that
  survived the Eocene and the Pliocene, but whether humans and
  the flora and fauna we are familiar with can adapt to these
  rapid changes remains to be seen. The accelerated rate of
  change appears to be faster than anything life on the planet
  has experienced before.
Book Review: The Uninhabitable Earth

The Uninhabitable Earth, Annotated Edition

  Over the past few decades, the term "Anthropocene" has
  climbed out of academic discourse and into the popular
  imagination - a name given to the geologic era we live in
  now, and a way to signal that it is a new era, defined on
  the wall chart of deep history by human intervention. One
  problem with the term is that it implies a conquest of
  nature (and even echoes the biblical "dominion"). And
  however sanguine you might be about the proposition that we
  have already ravaged the natural world, which we surely
  have, it is another thing entirely to consider the
  possibility that we have only provoked it, engineering first
  in ignorance and then in denial a climate system that will
  now go to war with us for many centuries, perhaps until it
  destroys us. That is what Wallace Smith Broecker, the
  avuncular oceanographer who coined the term "global
  warming," means when he calls the planet an "angry
  beast."  "The climate system is an angry beast and we are
  poking it with sticks."
  You could also go with "war machine."" Each day we arm it

The exorbitant cost of climate procrastination

  The current pace of CO2 emissions and national commitments
  outlined in the wake of the Paris Agreement still put the
  world on track toward 3°C of warming above preindustrial
  temperatures by the end of this century. This lies far
  beyond the +1.5°C target considered as the most acceptable
  for all participant countries during the 21st Conference of
  the Parties which took place in Paris in 2015. Even the +2°C
  target, although less binding, still remains out of reach
  under current trends and policies.

  A 3°C warming would wreak havoc on the planet, justifying
  the absolute necessity of the +1.5°C limit. However, even a
  +1.5°C change would incur heavy consequences. The adaptation
  cost would undoubtedly be high both for current and future
  generations: loss of agricultural yields, sea-level rise,
  whole regions rendered uninhabitable, leading to massive
  flows of climate migrants, collapse of the ecosystems and
  impoverished biodiversity, extreme meteorological events,
  seashore and topsoil erosion… All these effects will grow
  even more dire as global warming proceeds."

How climate change can make catastrophic weather systems linger for longer

  There does seem to be a plausible link between human-induced
  warming, slowing of jet streams, blocking highs, and extreme
  weather around the world. The recent Tasman Sea blocking
  high can be added to that list, along with other blocking
  highs that caused unprecedented wildfires in California and
  an extreme heatwave in Europe last year.

  There is also a trend for the slowing of the forward speed
  (as opposed to wind speed) of tropical cyclones around the
  world. One recent study showed the average forward speeds of
  tropical cyclones fell by 10% worldwide between 1949 and
  2016. Meanwhile, over the same period, the forward speed of
  tropical cyclones dropped by 22% over land in the Australian

  Climate change is expected to weaken the world's circulatory
  winds due to greater warming in high latitudes compared with
  the tropics, causing a slowing of the speed at which
  tropical cyclones move forward."