Understanding Global Climate Change
Ocean Acidification, Ocean Temperature

http://edu-observatory.org/olli/Climate/Week2.html



Ocean Acidification: The Other CO2 Problem
  http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163834

  Ocean acidification (OA) is the quiet tsunami of
  environmental degradation. Within a few decades, OA may
  devastate some marine ecosystems and threaten the
  productivity of our fisheries. When we burn oil, coal, or
  gas, scientists have recently shown, we are transforming the
  fundamental chemistry of the oceans, rapidly making the
  water more acidic.


Ocean acidification
  http://www.noaa.gov/resource-collections/ocean-acidification

  

  For more than 200 years, or since the industrial revolution
  began, the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the
  atmosphere has increased due to the burning of fossil fuels
  and land use change (e.g. increased car emissions and
  deforestation). During this time, the pH of surface ocean
  waters has fallen by 0.1 pH units. The pH scale, like the
  Richter scale, is logarithmic, so this change represents
  approximately a 30 percent increase in acidity.

  The ocean absorbs about 30% of the CO2 that is released in
  the atmosphere, and as levels of atmospheric CO2 increase,
  so do the levels in the ocean. When CO2 is absorbed by
  seawater, a series of chemical reactions occur resulting in
  the increased concentration of hydrogen ions. This increase
  causes the seawater to become more acidic and causes
  carbonate ions to be relatively less abundant.

Covering Ocean Acidification: Chemistry and Considerations
  http://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/2008/06/covering-ocean-acidification-chemistry-and-considerations/

An Upwelling Crisis: Ocean Acidification
  https://www.climate.gov/news-features/features/upwelling-crisis-ocean-acidification

TED Talk (18+ Minutes)
Rob Dunbar: Discovering Ancient Climates in Oceans and Ice
  http://www.ted.com/talks/rob_dunbar.html
  RobDunbar_2010Z-480p.mp4

  Rob Dunbar hunts for data on our climate from 12,000 years
  ago, finding clues inside ancient seabeds and corals and
  inside ice sheets. His work is vital in setting baselines
  for fixing our current climate -- and in tracking the rise
  of deadly ocean acidification.

Ocean acidification on track to be among the worst of the last
300 million years
  http://arstechnica.com/science/news/2012/03/ocean-acidification

  A new paper in Science examines the geologic record for
  context relating to ocean acidification, a lowering of the
  pH driven by the increased concentration of carbon dioxide
  in the atmosphere. The research group (twenty-one scientists
  from nearly as many different universities) reviewed the
  evidence from past known or suspected intervals of ocean
  acidification. The work provides perspective on the current
  trend as well as the potential consequences. They find that
  the current rate of ocean acidification puts us on a track
  that, if continued, would likely be unprecedented in last
  300 million years.

  The authors conclude, "The current rate of (mainly fossil
  fuel) CO2 release stands out as capable of driving a
  combination and magnitude of ocean geochemical changes
  potentially unparalleled in at least the last ~300 [million
  years] of Earth history, raising the possibility that we are
  entering an unknown territory of marine ecosystem change."


Greenhouse emissions similar to today's may have triggered
massive temperature rise in Earth's past
  http://news.sciencemag.org/climate/2014/12/greenhouse-emissions-similar-today-s-may-have-triggered-massive-temperature-rise

  About 55.5 million years ago, a burst of carbon dioxide
  raised Earth's temperature 5C to 8C, which had major
  impacts on numerous species of plants and wildlife.
  Scientists analyzing ancient soil samples now say a previous
  burst of the greenhouse gas preceded this event, known as
  the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), and probably
  triggered it. Moreover, they believe humans are pumping
  similar levels of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere right
  now, raising concerns that our own emissions may also
  destabilize Earth's climate, triggering the planet to emit
  devastating bursts of carbon in the future.


NOVA scienceNOW | Mass Extinction (13+ Minutes)
  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/earth/mass-extinction.html
  NOVA_scienceNOW_Mass_Extinction.mp4

  Host Neil deGrasse Tyson joins a team of investigators hot
  on the trail of a mass murderer--one that knocked off its
  victims 252 million years ago when it wiped out the majority
  of life on our planet. Long before the dinosaurs, at the end
  of the Permian Period, something triggered Earth's most
  profound mass extinction and reset the evolution of life on
  this planet.

End-Permian extinction happened in 60,000 years
  http://phys.org/news/2014-02-end-permian-extinction-yearsmuch-faster-earlier.html

  In addition to establishing the extinction's duration,
  Bowring, graduate student Seth Burgess, and a colleague from
  the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology also found
  that, 10,000 years before the die-off, the oceans
  experienced a pulse of light carbon, which likely reflects a
  massive addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. This
  dramatic change may have led to widespread ocean
  acidification and increased sea temperatures by 10 degrees
  Celsius or more, killing the majority of sea life.


 
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