The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse Effect
The Discovery of Global Warming
In the 19th century, scientists realized that gases in the
atmosphere cause a "greenhouse effect" which affects the
planet's temperature. These scientists were interested
chiefly in the possibility that a lower level of carbon
dioxide gas might explain the ice ages of the distant past.
At the turn of the century, Svante Arrhenius calculated that
emissions from human industry might someday bring a global
warming. In 1938, G.S. Callendar argued that the level of
carbon dioxide was climbing and raising global temperature,
but most scientists found his arguments implausible. It was
almost by chance that a few researchers in the 1950s
discovered that global warming truly was possible.
In the early 1960s, C.D. Keeling measured the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere: it was rising fast. Researchers began
to take an interest, struggling to understand how the level of
carbon dioxide had changed in the past, and how the level was
influenced by chemical and biological forces. They found that the
gas plays a crucial role in climate change, so that the rising
level could gravely affect our future.
Earth's Energy Imbalance (Radiative Forcing)
The earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it's
giving up due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.
The excess energy that the planet is absorbing is enormous.
The total energy imbalance is now greater than 3.1 W/m^2.
From the Laws of Thermodynamics earth must warm until it
reaches a new equilibrium (Ein = Eout) at higher temperature.
Given current concentrations of greenhouse gasses, the earth
will continue to warm for centuries.
James Hansen (2012): Why I must speak out about climate change
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fWInyaMWBY8 (17+ min)
Greenhouse CH4 Monitoring
Climate Change Indicators
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
Leading climate scientists have given their starkest warning
yet-that we are rushing to the brink of climate catastrophe‚
In a landmark report last Monday. The Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published its sixth
assessment report, a comprehensive review of the world's
knowledge of the climate crisis and how human actions are
altering the planet. It shows in detail how close the world
is to irreversible change.
One of the key action points for policymakers is a warning
that methane is playing an ever greater role in overheating
the planet. The carbon-rich gas, produced from animal
farming, shale gas wells, and poorly managed conventional
oil and gas extraction, heats the world far more effectively
than carbon dioxide-it has a "warming potential" more than
80 times that of carbon dioxide-but has a shorter life in
the atmosphere, persisting for about a decade before it
UNDRR -- GAR Special Report on Drought 2021
Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4), Volume I
Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4), Volume II
Tutorial: Evaluating and Explaining Climate Science
Skeptical Science: Climate Myths sorted by taxonomy
Berkeley Earth: A skeptic's guide to climate change
Berkeley Earth: CO2 - Temperature Correlation