Copernicus to the Big Bang -
Einstein to the Big Bang

Issac Newton (1642-1727), English mathematician and physicist,
considered the greatest single influence on theoretical
physics until Einstein. In Principia Mathematica (1687), he
gave a mathematical description of the laws of mechanics and
gravitation and applied these to planetary motion. Opticks
(1704) records his optical experiments and theories, including
the discovery that white light is made up of a mixture of
colors. His work in mathematics included the binomial theorem
and differential calculus.

How two scientists built a bridge between Newton and Einstein  5+ min

  Gravity retained a somewhat mystifying quality, even after
  the Newtonian revolution: how could one object affect
  another from great distances? The same could be said about
  light, heat and magnetism, which all seemed to jump through
  empty space. It wasn't until the 19th century that the
  scientists Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell made
  sense of these phenomena by developing electromagnetic field
  theory. With Faraday conceiving of electromagnetic fields
  and Maxwell expressing them with mathematics, the duo
  revolutionised physics by demonstrating how seemingly empty
  space isn't so empty. 

Poincare & Einstein

  In his 1902 book "Science and Hypothesis", the mathematical
  physicist Henri Poincare identified three fundamental yet
  unresolved problems [in physics].

  One problem concerned the mysterious way ultraviolet light
  ejects electrons from the surface of a metal; the second
  problem was the zig-zagging perpetual motion of pollen
  particles suspended in a liquid; the third problem was the
  failure of experiments to detect Earth's motion through the

  In 1904, Einstein read Poincare's book. He had also been
  thinking about these problems, independently of Poincare.
  For Einstein, they were clearly part of God's thoughts. One
  year later, in 1905, he solved all three.

Five Papers That Shook The World by Matthew Chalmers (2005)

Episode 25: From Kepler To Einstein - The Mechanical Universe  28:30
BBC: Albert Einstein Documentary HD  1h 30m

Predictions of Einstein's General Relativity

Tests of Big Bang Cosmology

Gravitational Waves: A New Era of Astronomy Begins

Selections from The Principle of Relativity
by Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking
Running Press, December 2004
ISBN-10: 0762420235

  Einstein's essay, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies,
  introduces his famous "principle of relativity," one of the
  twentieth century's most revolutionary concepts. In his
  introduction to this seminal work, the renowned physicist
  Stephen Hawking cuts through Einstein's mathematical
  complexities to explain this revolutionary concept in
  language that excites and informs the reader. This book
  features selections from a translation of the original
  essay, The Principle of Relativity, as well as an insightful
  biography of Einstein and Hawking's informative summary.