Tests of Big Bang Cosmology
http://edu-observatory.org/olli/tobbc/Week2.html   or   index.html

                  Copernicus (1473-1543)
   Tycho Brahe   Johannas Kepler       Galileo Galilei
   (1546-1601)    (1571-1630)           (1564-1642)

Timeline of Cosmological Theories

  This timeline of cosmological theories and discoveries is a
  chronological record of the development of humanity's
  understanding of the cosmos over the last two-plus
  millennia. Modern cosmological ideas follow the development
  of the scientific discipline of physical cosmology.

Review of atomic spectral lines and Doppler shift

From Wikipedia - Doppler Effect

From Wikipedia - Redshift

Tests of Big Bang Cosmology

  The Big Bang Model is supported by a number of important
  observations, each of which are described in more detail
  on separate pages:

  1. The expansion of the universe

  Edwin Hubble's 1929 observation that galaxies were generally
  receding from us provided the first clue that the Big Bang
  theory might be right.
  The Big Bang model was a natural outcome of Einstein's
  General Relativity as applied to a homogeneous universe.
  However, in 1917, the idea that the universe was expanding
  was thought to be absurd. So Einstein invented the
  cosmological constant as a term in his General Relativity
  theory that allowed for a static universe. 

  In 1929, Edwin Hubble announced that his observations of
  galaxies outside our own Milky Way showed that they were
  systematically moving away from us with a speed that was
  proportional to their distance from us. The more distant
  the galaxy, the faster it was receding from us. The
  universe was expanding after all, just as General
  Relativity originally predicted!

  Hubble observed that the light from a given galaxy was
  shifted further toward the red end of the light spectrum
  the further that galaxy was from our galaxy.

  The specific form of Hubble's expansion law is important:
  the speed of recession is proportional to distance. Hubble
  expressed this idea in an equation - distance/time per
  megaparsec. A megaparsec is a really big distance (3.26
  million light-years). 

  The expanding raisin bread model illustrates why this
  proportion law is important. If every portion of the bread
  expands by the same amount in a given interval of time,
  then the raisins would recede from each other with exactly
  a Hubble type expansion law. 

  In a given time interval, a nearby raisin would move
  relatively little, but a distant raisin would move
  relatively farther - and the same behavior would be seen
  from any raisin in the loaf. In other words, the Hubble law
  is just what one would expect for a homogeneous expanding
  universe, as predicted by the Big Bang theory.

  Moreover no raisin, or galaxy, occupies a special place in
  this universe - unless you get too close to the edge of the
  loaf where the analogy breaks down.

From Wikipedia - Hubble's Law

Where was the center of the Big Bang?

How can the Universe be infinite if it was all concentrated into 
a point at the Big Bang?

Why the universe probably is "flat"
  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQL2qiPsHSQ (1hr 17)

  Lawrence Krauss makes the case for a flat universe, where
  the total amount of mass-energy in the universe is and
  always has been zero.

  2. The abundance of the light elements H, He, Li

  The Big Bang theory predicts that these light elements should
  have been fused from protons and neutrons in the first few
  minutes after the Big Bang.

  3. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation

  The early universe should have been very hot. The cosmic
  microwave background radiation is the remnant heat leftover
  from the Big Bang.

  These three measurable signatures strongly support the notion
  that the universe evolved from a dense, nearly featureless
  hot gas, just as the Big Bang model predicts.