Voyages of Discovery: Copernicus to the Big Bang http://edu-observatory.org/olli/VD-C2BB/Week4.html Poincaré & Einstein Ref: "EINSTEIN 1905", John S. Rigden, Harvard University Press (2005) http://www.amazon.com/dp/0674021045/ "In his 1902 book "La Science et l'Hypothèse", the mathematical physicist Henri Poincaré identified three fundamental yet unresolved problems [in physics]. "One problem concerned the mysterious way ultraviolet light ejects electrons from the surface of a metal; the second problem was the zig-zagging perpetual motion of pollen particles suspended in a liquid; the third problem was the failure of experiments to detect Earth's motion through the aether". "In 1904, Einstein read Poincaré's book. He had also been thinking about these problems, independently of Poincaré. For Einstein, they were clearly part of God's thoughts. One year later, in 1905, he solved all three". Five Papers that Shook the World by Matthew Chalmers http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/18/1/2/1 On 17 March in 1905 - three days after his 26th birthday - Einstein submitted a paper titled "A heuristic point of view concerning the production and transformation of light" to Annalen der Physik.(Ann. Phys., Lpz 17 132-148) Einstein would go on to receive the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics for this work, although the official citation stated that the prize was also awarded "for his services to theoretical physics". On 30 April, one month before his paper on the photoelectric effect appeared in print, Einstein completed his second 1905 paper, in which he showed how to calculate Avogadro's number and the size of molecules by studying their motion in a solution. This article was accepted as a doctoral thesis by the University of Zurich in July, and published in a slightly altered form in Annalen der Physik in January 1906. After finishing a doctoral thesis, most physicists would be either celebrating or sleeping. But just 11 days later Einstein sent another paper to Annalen der Physik, this time on the subject of Brownian motion. (Ann. Phys., Lpz 17 549-560). Einstein's fourth paper landed on the desks of Annalen der Physik on 30 June, and would go on to completely overhaul our understanding of space and time. Some 30 pages long and containing no references, his fourth 1905 paper was titled "On the electrodynamics of moving bodies" (Ann. Phys., Lpz 17 891-921). Einstein's "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" (June 30, 1905) http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/specrel/www/ After a short family holiday in Serbia, Einstein submitted his fifth and final paper of 1905 on 27 September. Just three pages long and titled "Does the inertia of a body depend on its energy content?", this paper presented an "afterthought" on the consequences of special relativity, which culminated in a simple equation that is now known as E = mc^2 (Ann. Phys., Lpz 18 639-641). This equation, which was to become the most famous in all of science, was the icing on the cake. Einstein was finally given the title of Herr Doktor from the University of Zurich in January 1906, but he remained at the patent office for a further two and a half years before taking up his first academic position at Zurich. By this time his statistical interpretation of Brownian motion and his bold postulates of special relativity were becoming part of the fabric of physics, although it would take several more years for his paper on light quanta to gain wide acceptance. 1905 was undoubtedly a great year for physics, and for Einstein. "You have to go back to quasi-mythical figures like Galileo or especially Newton to find good analogues," says Wilczek. "The closest in modern times might be Dirac, who, if magnetic monopoles had been discovered, would have given Einstein some real competition!" But we should not forget that 1905 was just the beginning of Einstein's legacy. His crowning achievement - the general theory of relativity - was still to come. The Mechanical Universe - MU-25 "From Kepler to Einstein" 28:30 http://www.learner.org/resources/series42.html Our Restless Tides (NOAA) http://co-ops.nos.noaa.gov/restles1.html On the Shoulders of Giants by Steven Hawking http://www.amazon.com/dp/0762413484 swormley1@gmail.com