A password for an online account resides with the organization
providing the account. You have to login into that account to
access information, make purchases, etc., and to change the
1. Account (often accessed via a website)
2. Username (often one's email address)
4. Many institutions offer a temporary secondary
If you write down passwords, you need to write down 1,2, and 3
together. However, if you use a password manager (highly
recommended), you don't need to write down the information.
Remembering passwords is a huge problem. Using a password
manager (to remember the websites, usernames, and passwords)
is the best solution.
The passwords or passcodes for a computers, smart phones, or
tablets resides only in those devices and nowhere else.
These you need to have in your head. All others in a password
Account passwords should be unique, long (20 characters),
randomly generated, and stored in a password manager.
Where available, use passkeys instead of passwords.
Creating Strong Passwords
How to: Enable Two-factor Authentication
Using Password Managers to Stay Safe Online
Animated Overview: Using Password Managers to Stay Safe Online (2+ min)
Password Security Recommendations
The Password AutoFill passwords list in iOS, iPadOS, and
macOS indicates which of a user's saved passwords will be
reused with other websites, passwords that are considered
weak, and passwords that have been compromised by a data
Change weak or compromised passwords on iPhone, iPad, or Mac
Your device may also inform you of passwords that may have
been compromised in a data leak. This feature uses strong
cryptographic techniques to regularly check derivations of
your passwords against a list of leaked passwords in a
secure and private way that doesn't reveal to Apple your
accounts or passwords. Apple will send to your device a list
of common passwords that are present in data leaks. For your
passwords that are not in this list, your device will send
information calculated from your passwords to Apple to check
if the passwords may be present in a data leak. You will be
warned about your passwords determined to possibly be in a
Check if your Password has been compromised in a data breach
Many Password Managers flag account passwords that are weak
or have been compromise. Check regularly. Change the
password on any compromised account.
Passwords should be unique, long (20 characters), randomly
generated, and stored in a password manager.
Some Popular Password Managers
Apple's Keychain (not in the cloud, but on your Apple devices)
Apple's Password Manager, Keychain, alerts users if their
passwords have been exposed online.
How to find saved passwords and passkeys on your iPhone
Apple: Sharing Passwords and Passkeys
Passwords You Should Know in your Head
1. Computer's Login (and administrator's) Password
2. Mobile Devices (phones, tablets. watches) Passcodes
3. Apple ID Password
Pretty much everything else is in your password manager
which takes care of all those long, unique, and randomly
gererated passords and passcode you don't need to worry
Recovering Forgotten Wi-Fi Password
Wi-Fi Password Recovery on Windows
1. Click the Start button and then go to Control Panel >
Network and Internet > Network and Sharing Center (Windows
11) or Settings > Network & Internet > Status > Network and
Sharing Center (Windows 10).
2. Next to Connections, click your Wi-Fi network name
highlighted in blue.
3. In the Wi-Fi Status page that opens, click Wireless
Properties and then on the Security tab.
4. Finally, check the box next to Show characters to display
your Wi-Fi network password above it.
Wi-Fi Password Recovery on a Mac
System Settings > Wi-Fi
Click on the Circle with three dots
Wi-Fi Password Recovery on a iPhone/iPad
System Settings > Wi-Fi
Touch the Circle with an i
Touch the dots
Forgot Apple ID Password, Login Password, or Passcode
Forgot macOS Computer Password
Apple silicon: Turn on your Mac and continue to press and
hold the power button until you see the startup options
window. Select the gear icon labeled Options, then click
Intel processor: Turn on your Mac and immediately press and
hold Command-R until you see an Apple logo or other image.
Forgot passcode for your iPhone, iPad, or iPod-touch
Forget your WiFi password
If you are connected to the WiFi on your iPhone (iOS 16 or
later) goto Settings > WiFi > Touch the WiFi name (SSID) or
the circle with the "i", then touch the password dots. Ta da