Managing Your Digital Stuff - Passwords & Passkeys

A password for an online account resides with the organization
providing the account. You have to login into that account to
access information, make purchases, etc., and to change the

  1. Account (often accessed via a website's URL)
  2. Username (often one's email address)
  3. Password
  4. Many account providers offer a secondary 
     (temporary) authentication code
If you write down passwords, you need to write down 1,2,3
together. However, if you use a password manager (highly
recommended), you don't need to write down the information.  

Remembering passwords is a huge problem. Using a password
manager (to remember the websites, usernames, and passwords)
is the best solution. 

  If your password has been detected in any of these breached 
  sites -- make sure you login to your account and change the 
  password. Every password should be unique, 16-20+ 
  characters, randomly generated, and stored in a password 

  Goto (System) Settings > Passwords > Security Recommendations
  iPhone/iPad/Mac can securely monitor your passwords and
  alert you if they are weak or appear in known date leaks.
  Make sure you login to your account and change the flagged 
  password(s). Every password should be unique, 16-20+ 
  characters, randomly generated, and stored in a password 


  Passkeys reside on your device, not anywhere else.

  Passkeys are a replacement for passwords that are designed
  to provide websites and apps a passwordless sign-in
  experience that is both more convenient and more secure.
  Passkeys are a standard-based technology that, unlike
  passwords, are resistant to phishing, are always strong, and
  are designed so that there are no shared secrets. They
  simplify account registration for apps and websites, are
  easy to use, and work across all of your Apple devices, and
  even non-Apple devices within physical proximity.

  Passkeys are built on the WebAuthentication (or "WebAuthn")
  standard, which uses public key cryptography. During account
  registration, the operating system creates a unique
  cryptographic key pair to associate with an account for the
  app or website. These keys are generated by the device,
  securely and uniquely, for every account.

  One of these keys is public, and is stored on the server.
  This public key is not a secret. The other key is private,
  and is what is needed to actually sign in. The server never
  learns what the private key is. On Apple devices with Touch
  ID or Face ID available, they can be used to authorize use
  of the passkey, which then authenticates the user to the app
  or website. 
  No shared secret is transmitted, and the server does not
  need to protect the public key. This makes passkeys very
  strong, easy to use credentials that are highly
  phishing-resistant. And platform vendors have worked
  together within the FIDO Alliance to make sure that passkey
  implementations are compatible cross-platform and can work
  on as many devices as possible.

  Use passkeys to sign in to apps and websites   

Resources from the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)

Some Popular Password Managers 1Password Apple's Keychain (not in the cloud, but on your Apple devices) Apple's Password Manager, Keychain, alerts users if their passwords have been exposed online. How to find saved passwords and passkeys on your iPhone Apple: Sharing Passwords and Passkeys

Passwords You Should Know in your Head 1. Computer's Login (and administrator's) Password 2. Mobile Devices (phones, tablets. watches) Passcodes 3. Apple ID Password Pretty much everything else is in your password manager which takes care of all those long, unique, and randomly gererated passords and passcode you don't need to worry about.

Recovering Forgotten Wi-Fi Password Wi-Fi Password Recovery on Windows 1. Click the Start button and then go to Control Panel > Network and Internet > Network and Sharing Center (Windows 11) or Settings > Network & Internet > Status > Network and Sharing Center (Windows 10). 2. Next to Connections, click your Wi-Fi network name highlighted in blue. 3. In the Wi-Fi Status page that opens, click Wireless Properties and then on the Security tab. 4. Finally, check the box next to Show characters to display your Wi-Fi network password above it. Wi-Fi Password Recovery on a Mac System Settings > Wi-Fi Click on the Circle with three dots Copy Password Wi-Fi Password Recovery on a iPhone/iPad System Settings > Wi-Fi Touch the Circle with an i Touch the dots  

Forgot? Forgot Apple ID Password, Login Password, or Passcode Forgot macOS Computer Password Apple silicon: Turn on your Mac and continue to press and hold the power button until you see the startup options window. Select the gear icon labeled Options, then click Continue. Intel processor: Turn on your Mac and immediately press and hold Command-R until you see an Apple logo or other image. Forgot passcode for your iPhone, iPad, or iPod-touch Forget your WiFi password If you are connected to the WiFi on your iPhone (iOS 16 or later) goto Settings > WiFi > Touch the WiFi name (SSID) or the circle with the "i", then touch the password dots. Ta da